The car-making process
From drawings to hardware. The first step towards (to translate) an engineering concept of reality is a (to draw). A new car (pass) a number of planning stages before it reaches the huge room, where hundreds of draftsmen make final drawing of every part of the body, from bumper to taillights.
With the help of a special device the engineers put together a three dimensional, full-sized model of the car. Then they start (to look for) faults. The metal also must be checked for quality. Frequently they find that a door can not swing freely or some other thing does not align. All changes must be made without delay: the body engineers have to process 80 different models a year.
Torturing parts for reliability
Engineers try to design a car, which will work perfectly until one day, every single part of it wear out at the same instant. Automotive engineers aim at a reliable life of 100000 miles for all of the 12000 parts of a car. After a part is (to design) by an engineer, it is run through an ordeal of (to twist), (to vibrate) and sub-zero temperatures. Hundreds of machines test reliability – cranking windows, slamming doors, bouncing springs until the part breaks. A part that (to break) early requires a new design. A part that lasts far longer then the others also returns to the drawing board. Engineers can make it a little weaker – as long as it matches the lifetime of the rest of the car – and the buyer gets the benefit of economy.